Psychological review (v. 2)
James Mark Baldwin
The original title of the book: Psychological review (v. 2) By: James Mark BaldwinPage 514
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Excerpt from book: THE MUSCULAR SENSE AND ITS LOCATION IN THE BRAIN CORTEX. BY PROFESSOR M. ALLEN STARR, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. It is not necessary to present to the readers of this journal any lengthy discussion in regard to the muscular sense. Every psychologist admits that there is a sense of movement which enables us to appreciate, (i) the position of a limb in space: (2) the degree and force of muscular action necessary to change the position of that limb: (3) the power needed to oppose varying resistances to the motion of that limb. It has been thought by some that the muscular sense was materially aided by the tactile sense in the process of accurate guiding and adjustment: it has been held by others that the muscular sense was wholly independent of the other senses and the fact here recorded supports this latter view. It has been held by some, that the centres of perception of the muscular sense in the cortex were identical with the centres of movement in the cortex: it has been held by others, that these centres were separate from one another: and the fact here recorded, supports this latter view. It is well known that disturbance in muscular sense may be produced by diseases in various parts of the nervous system. Thus we have ataxia or incoordination of movement, not depending upon paralysis of the muscles, but entirely due to a lack of appreciation of muscular sense impressions, from (i) diseases of the peripheral nerves: (2) diseases of the posterior columns of the spinal cord, as shown in locomotor ataxia: (3) diseases of the lemniscus or its radiation in the internal capsule in its course toward the cortex around the Rolandic fissure: (4) general diffuse diseases of the cortex of the brain, such as general paresis. It is evident therefore,that any def...